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2011年4月14日 (木)

Tsunami-hit towns forgot warnings from ancestors - 先祖からの警鐘

Tsunami-hit towns forgot warnings from ancestors
津波被害の町は先祖からの警鐘を忘れていた


091_http__mdn_mainichi_jp_feature_2 MIYAKO, Japan (AP) -- Modern sea walls failed to protect coastal towns from Japan's destructive tsunami last month. But in the hamlet of Aneyoshi, a single centuries-old tablet saved the day.


 "High dwellings are the peace and harmony of our descendants," the stone slab reads. "Remember the calamity of the great tsunamis. Do not build any homes below this point."

(岩手県宮古市姉吉村にある9世紀*の石碑には“高地の住居がわれわれの子孫の平安と和合になる。大津波の惨事を忘れてはならない。この地点より下には家を建てるな”と書かれている。*西暦869年貞観地震:「高き住まいは児孫に和楽 想え惨事の大津波 此処より下に家を建てるな」)
 It was advice the dozen or so households of Aneyoshi heeded, and their homes emerged unscathed from a disaster that flattened low-lying communities elsewhere and killed thousands along Japan's northeastern shore.

 Hundreds of such markers dot the coastline, some more than 600 years old. Collectively they form a crude warning system for Japan, whose long coasts along major fault lines have made it a repeated target of earthquakes and tsunamis over the centuries.
 The markers don't all indicate where it's safe to build. Some simply stand -- or stood, until they were washed away by the tsunami -- as daily reminders of the risk. "If an earthquake comes, beware of tsunamis," reads one. In the bustle of modern life, many forgot.
 More than 12,000 people have been confirmed dead and officials fear the number killed could rise to 25,000 from the March 11 disaster. More than 100,000 are still sheltering in schools and other buildings, almost a month later. A few lucky individuals may move into the first completed units of temporary housing this weekend.
Sanriku_eng  In this March 30, 2011 photo, wooden debris is trapped on a sea wall badly damaged by the March 11 tsunami in Rikuzentakata, Iwate Prefecture, northeastern Japan.(AP Photo/Vincent Yu)Workers at the tsunami-damaged Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power complex finally halted a leak of radioactive water into the Pacific on Wednesday, but it may take months to bring the overheating reactors under control.
 A natural disaster as large as last month's 9.0 earthquake and tsunami happens perhaps once in a person's lifetime, at most. Tokyo Electric Power Co., the nuclear plant operator, clearly wasn't prepared. Many communities built right to the water's edge, some taking comfort, perhaps, in sea walls built after a deadly but smaller tsunami in 1960.
 Many did escape, fleeing immediately after the quake. In some places, it was a matter of minutes. Others who tarried, perished.
 "People had this crucial knowledge, but they were busy with their lives and jobs, and many forgot," said Yotaru Hatamura, a scholar who has studied the tablets.
One stone marker warned of the danger in the coastal city of Kesennuma: "Always be prepared for unexpected tsunamis. Choose life over your possessions and valuables."
(“人々はこのきわめて重要な知識を持っていた、しかし生活と仕事に忙しかったので、多くの人々は忘れていた”。石の標識は“常に予期せぬ津波に覚悟をせよ。財産や金銭より命を大切にせよ”と警告していた)

 Sanriku Tetsuko Takahashi, 70, safe in her hillside house, watched from her front window as others ignored that advice. She saw a ship swept a half-mile (nearly a kilometer) inland, crushing buildings in its path.
 "After the earthquake, people went back to their homes to get their valuables and stow their 'tatami' floor mats. They all got caught," she said.
Her family has lived in Kesennuma for generations, but she said those that experienced the most powerful tsunamis died years ago. She can only recall the far weaker one in 1960, generated by an earthquake off Chile.
 Earlier generations also left warnings in place names, calling one town "Octopus Grounds" for the sea life washed up by tsunamis and naming temples after the powerful waves, said Fumihiko Imamura, a professor in disaster planning at Tohoku University in Sendai, a tsunami-hit city.
 "It takes about three generations for people to forget. Those that experience the disaster themselves pass it to their children and their grandchildren, but then the memory fades," he said.
 The tightly knit community of Aneyoshi, where people built homes above the marker, was an exception.

Http__mdn_mainichi_jp_mdnnews_new_2   "Everybody here knows about the markers. We studied them in school," said Yuto Kimura, 12, who guided a recent visitor to one near his home. "When the tsunami came, my mom got me from school and then the whole village climbed to higher ground."
(“ここの誰もがこの600以上もある標識については知っている。学校でも教わった”)Aneyoshi, part of the city of Miyako, has been battered repeatedly by tsunamis, including a huge one in 1896. Isamu Aneishi, 69, said his ancestors moved their family-run inn to higher ground more than 100 years ago.
 But his three grandchildren were at an elementary school that sat just 500 feet (150 meters) from the water in Chikei, a larger town down the winding, cliffside road. The school and surrounding buildings are in ruins. The bodies of his grandchildren have not been found.
 Farther south, the tsunami washed away a seven-foot (two-meter) tall stone tablet that stood next to a playground in the middle of the city of Natori. Its message was carved in giant Japanese characters: "If an earthquake comes, beware of tsunamis."
 That didn't stop some people from leaving work early after the earthquake, some picking up their children at school en route, to check the condition of their homes near the coast.
 Many didn't make it out alive. More than 820 bodies have been found in Natori, some stuck in the upper branches of trees after the water receded. Another 1,000 people are still missing.
 Hiroshi Kosai grew up in Natori but moved away after high school. His parents, who remained in the family home, died in the disaster.
 "I always told my parents it was dangerous here," said the 43-year-old Kosai, as he pointed out the broken foundation where the tablet once stood. "In five years, you'll see houses begin to sprout up here again."
(Mainichi Japan) April 7, 2011

「此処(ここ)より下に家を建てるな」――
 東日本巨大地震で沿岸部が津波にのみこまれた岩手県宮古市にあって、重茂半島東端の姉吉地区(12世帯約40人)では全ての家屋が被害を免れた。1933年の昭和三陸大津波の後、海抜約60メートルの場所に建てられた石碑の警告を守り、坂の上で暮らしてきた住民たちは、改めて先人の教えに感謝していた。
 「高き住居は児孫(じそん)の和楽(わらく) 想(おも)へ惨禍の大津浪(おおつなみ)
 本州最東端のヶ埼(とどがさき)灯台から南西約2キロ、姉吉漁港から延びる急坂に立つ石碑に刻まれた言葉だ。結びで「此処より――」と戒めている。(は魚へんに毛)
 地区は1896年の明治、1933年の昭和と2度の三陸大津波に襲われ、生存者がそれぞれ2人と4人という壊滅的な被害を受けた。昭和大津波の直後、住民らが石碑を建立。その後は全ての住民が石碑より高い場所で暮らすようになった。
 地震の起きた11日、港にいた住民たちは大津波警報が発令されると、高台にある家を目指して、曲がりくねった約800メートルの坂道を駆け上がった。巨大な波が濁流となり、漁船もろとも押し寄せてきたが、その勢いは石碑の約50メートル手前で止まった。地区自治会長の木村民茂さん(65)「幼いころから『石碑の教えを破るな』と言い聞かされてきた。先人の教訓のおかげで集落は生き残った」と話す。
20113300722  読売新聞)

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(参考文献)
山下文男2008年1月,「津波てんでんこ」(新日本出版社):「http___tamutamu2011.kuronowish.com_tunamitenndeko.pdf」をダウンロード
中尾政之,「明治29年三陸大津波(1986年6月15日死者22,066人)」:「HA0000616.pdf」をダウンロード

2011-06-11 追加「Stone Tsunami monument found in Iwate city」
「歴史語る『津波石』見つかる 大船渡の海岸」

英文:http_mdn.mainichi.jp_mdnnews_news_20110626p2a00m0na017.pdf」をダウンロード
「http_mainichi.jp_select_weathernews_news_20110616k0000.pdf」をダウンロード

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