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2011年9月25日 (日)

Black-out Manual - 黒く塗りつぶされたもの

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 News
TEPCO submits more redacted Fukushima nuke plant manuals to Diet committee
 東京電力は福島原発の「事故時運転操作手順書」の大半を黒塗りして国会委員会に提出した

Tepco_fukushima
 Tokyo Electric Power Co. (TEPCO), operator of the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear plant, has handed a Diet science committee another heavily redacted accident manual for the stricken plant.
 The House of Representatives Special Committee on Promotion of Science and Technology and Innovation had requested TEPCO submit two operating manuals -- one each for accidents and severe accidents -- through the Economy, Trade and Industry Ministry (METI). On Sept. 7, the committee announced it had received only the first of the two manuals, the majority of which had been blacked out, prompting the body to demand TEPCO resubmit both manuals by Sept. 9.

 The committee revealed on Sept. 12 that the severe accident manual subsequently handed over by TEPCO was also almost entirely redacted.

 Meanwhile, at a meeting of the committee's directors on the same day, representatives of METI's Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) revealed for the first time that under the laws governing nuclear power in Japan, the committee has the power to order TEPCO to disclose the manuals in full. As such, the committee requested the minister of economy, trade and industry issue such an order to the utility -- a legal first. The request marks the fourth time the committee has demanded TEPCO disclose the manuals.
 "It is unacceptable for TEPCO to refuse to disclose these materials in the wake of this kind of disaster," committee chair Hiroshi Kawauchi said. "Furthermore, the fact that NISA knew there were legal grounds to demand the documents' disclosure but did nothing about it angered many of the committee directors."
 Meanwhile, a TEPCO representative stated, "These manuals are entirely internal documents pertaining to the operation of the reactors. They are not for general publication."
 NISA and TEPCO representatives brought copies of the three-page severe accident manual to the board of directors meeting. However, only two lines of the document -- one reading "firefighting" and the other "inert gases" -- remained visible. Neither NISA nor the TEPCO representatives provided an explanation for the redactions at the meeting. The utility also collected the blacked-out documents at the meeting's end, saying only, "The issue here is the protection of nuclear materials, and our intellectual property rights."
Click here for the original story in Japanese & English:「mainichi_20110913_jpn.pdf」をダウンロード 「mainichi_20110913_eng.pdf」をダウンロード
(Mainichi Japan) September 13, 2011


東日本大震災:東電、別の手順書も黒塗り 保安院「開示命令は可能」
Mainichi_0916  東京電力が福島第1原発の「事故時運転操作手順書」の大半を黒塗りして開示した問題で、再開示を要求していた衆議院科学技術・イノベーション推進特別委員会(川内博史委員長)は12日、同社が別の「シビアアクシデント(過酷事故)発生時の手順書」でもほとんどすべてを塗りつぶして開示したことを明らかにした。
 一方、経済産業省原子力安全・保安院がこの日の同委員会理事会で、原子炉等規制法などによって手順書の開示命令ができるという初めての説明をした。このため、同委員会は経済産業相に対し、初めて同法に基づいて開示命令を出すように請求した。開示請求は通算
4回目。
 理事会では、保安院と東電幹部がシビアアクシデント手順書を持参して説明した。資料は表紙と目次のA43枚で、目次50行のうち開示されたのは「消火系」と「不活性ガス」と書かれた2行のみ。両者から内容についての説明はなく、東電は会議後に資料を回収し、「核物質防護と知的財産上の問題」と説明したという。
 川内委員長は「これだけの事故を起こしておいてまったく資料開示に応じないのは遺憾。保安院も法的権限があるのを知りながら、これまで何もしていなかったということで理事からも怒りの声が上がった」と話した。
 一方、この日の会見で東電は「あくまで運転操作にかかわる手順書は社内文書。一般的に公開するものではないと考えている」としている。【関東晋慈】
毎日新聞 2011913 東京朝刊
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福島第1原発:東電の黒塗り公開「疑問だ」 深野保安院長
毎日新聞web 2011916
Click here for the original story in Japanese:「mainichi_20110916_jpn.pdf」をダウンロード 

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Perspectives
Secrecy in black ink: Redactions speak volumes about those doing the censoring
 黒く塗られた秘密:修正は検閲された教科書を物語る

Secrecy_in_black_ink_2  There is no more expressive a text than one that has been blacked out. I am, of course, speaking of the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear plant accident manuals and other documents submitted to a Diet science committee earlier this month with the vast majority of the content hidden by black blocks and lines. The black ink secrecy speaks volumes about the nature of the organization that submitted them -- plant operator Tokyo Electric Power Co. (TEPCO).
 The redaction of the Fukushima plant manuals brings to mind another instance of the application of so much black ink to written texts: Japanese school textbooks at the end of World War II.
 On Aug. 28, 1945, just two days before General Douglas MacArthur landed, the then Education Ministry directed schools use caution in how they used their textbooks, and take "suitable measures," including omissions, that reflected the "changed situation." Then, on Sept. 20, the ministry issued another order commanding schools to eliminate "unsuitable" material outright. These moves came more than a month before the General Headquarters (GHQ) -- the head of the Allied occupation -- issued its own policy on education in Japan. The ministry's prompt action was good preparation for what was to come, but teachers were getting anxious, and the students simply bewildered by the suddenly altered reality.
 Just a little while ago, there was a scene in a serial drama called "Ohisama" on public broadcaster NHK that depicts the moment when Japanese school children were ordered to paint over large chunks of their textbooks with black ink. The main character, a teacher named Yoko, stands in front of her students and apologizes for what she had taught them during the war. In reality, it is said that far more brutal versions of this scene played themselves out all across Japan in autumn 1945.
 In the fifth volume of the work "Bokura Shokokumin," the children's author Hisashi Yamanaka -- himself a middle school student at the end of the war -- wrote: "The teachers spoke to us in the most businesslike way, telling us to black out text 'on this page, from this spot down, from this line to that line.' Any place where the ink was too thin, we were ordered to redo.
 "If I forgot my textbook, the teacher would strike me. The very teachers that had beaten students for mistreating their textbooks were now ordering us, faces blank and in bureaucratic tones, to paint over the text with black ink," Yamanaka continued of his experience, and the distrust of the teachers it invited.
 The Education Ministry's September 1945 redaction order was focused on material with a strongly militaristic flavor, including themes like, "increase fighting spirit," and "emphasis on military preparations for the defense of the nation." However, it also contained redaction directives that were practically unintelligible, like, "Materials that differ remarkably from the reality of the present situation surrounding the end of the war, and materials that young students from now on would find too distant from their life experience, or would otherwise detract from their own value as teaching materials."
 Reading between the lines of any of the occasionally abstruse official writs to emerge from the government, one can sense their authors thinking, "Don't make us say too much. Got it?" The textbook redactions were one such case. What the ministry wanted the teachers to understand is that they had to act a certain way to avoid the vigorous oversight of the occupying army. As a possible result, some schools blacked out all sorts of things, not just textbook content. Perhaps the schools actually developed a competitive mentality over the redactions; eliminating objects of wartime esteem with the same zeal they had once promoted them.

 The attack on the symbols and education of wartime Imperial Japan did nothing to truly help children in school then accept or understand the nation's defeat or the sudden change in the behaviour of the adults around them. Instead, this was part of what molded the Japanese version of the "angry youth generation."
 In the newest attempt to edit reality with black ink, this time by TEPCO, might there have been at least some movement within the company to present the documents intact? I would dearly like to think so.
 In the series "Ohisama," Yoko expresses her bitterness and frustration this way: "So it's me that's covered in ink." (By Kenji Tamaki, Expert Senior Writer)
Click here for the original story in Japanese & English:「mainichi_20110920_jpn.pdf」をダウンロード 「mainichi_20110920_eng.pdf」をダウンロード
(Mainichi Japan) September 20, 2011

火論:陽子先生の涙=玉木研二

ka-ron>
Kyodo_0907  黒く塗りつぶされたものほど雄弁なものはない。東京電力が福島第1原発の事故時運転操作手順書などの大半を黒く覆って開示した件だ。組織の体質を端的に物語る。
 黒く塗るといえば、敗戦後の教科書の墨塗りがある。
 マッカーサーが厚木に降り立つ2日前の1945828日、文部省(当時)は「時局の変転」に伴い教科書の取り扱いに十分注意し、省略などの「適宜措置」をするよう通達した。さらに920日、教科書の「適当ならざる」ものを削除するよう事例を示し通達した。GHQ(連合国軍総司令部)が教育政策方針を示すのは1カ月以上先。手回しがいいが、教師たちは焦心し、子供たちは困惑した。
 先ごろNHKの朝のドラマ「おひさま」で主人公の陽子先生が児童たちに教科書の墨塗りをさせ、戦争中の教えを謝るくだりがあった。現実にはもっと殺伐とした光景も全国にあったといわれる。
 当時旧制中学生だった児童文学作家の山中恒(ひさし)さんは「ボクラ少国民」第5部(辺境社)でこう書いている。<教師たちはきわめて事務的に「なんページなん行、なになに以下、なん行目なになにまで」といった調子で墨をぬらせた。薄い墨をぬったものには、やりなおしが命じられた>
 山中少年は<教科書を忘れてきたといっては殴り、教科書を粗略に扱ったといっては生徒を殴打した教師たちが、全く感情を表に出さず事務的にすみ塗りを命じる態度>に不信感を募らせる。
 文部省が9月に示した削除対象は「国防軍備の強調」「戦意高揚」など軍国調が際立った記述・表現が柱だが、中に「戦争終結に伴う現実の事態と著しく遊離し、または今後における児童生徒の生活体験と甚だしく遠ざかり、教材としての価値を減損せる教材」という難解なのがある。
 官庁通達はしばしば意味不明の言い回しの行間に「わかれ、多くを言わせるな」とにじませるが、これもそうだ。とにかく占領軍ににらまれぬよううまくやれと読める。その結果か、教科書以外でもせっせと塗った学校も相次いだ。戦時中とは見上げる対象こそ違え、忠誠競争のような心理も働いたかもしれない。
 子供たちはこの体験で敗戦の現実や大人の変身適応などを期せずして知る。彼らは長じて「怒れる若者たち」の日本版世代を形成する。
 木で鼻をくくるような黒塗り開示に、東電内で諫止(かんし)や待ったの動きはなかったか。あったとせめて思いたい。
 「おひさま」は、陽子先生の苦渋の心境をこう表す。<ああ墨で塗られているのは私なんだな>(専門編集委員)
毎日新聞 2011920 東京朝刊

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